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In Chapter 392, a Geocentric based model of the One Piece world with 6 satellites or planetoids (which includes their world's moon) can be seen at Ohara's Tree of Knowledge, one of which had a second body orbiting it. Their world also sits on a rough angle of about 24-25 degrees, the same angle as the Earth.
The first thing that needs to be mentioned is the time when the story takes place. Since One Piece is a pirate adventure, the age in the story resembles the colonial times of the real world. Of course there are a lot of differences to the real world here and there, but the ages can roughly be compared to each other.
In the world of One Piece, there seem to be three big different kinds of environments which everyone lives in. The first is the Blue Sea, which is the massive ocean that covers most of the world of One Piece. The next one is the sky ocean which as the name indicates is an environment in the sky. The third one has not been given a official name so far, but since Fishman Island is at the bottom of the ocean, the third environment is the ocean floor.
It is unknown how long the world has been around and how it was created. The dinosaurs in Little Garden and Montblanc Cricket mentioning a millions of years when discussing Sky Island suggest that the world is millions of years old.
The oldest recorded history in the series is 5,000 years ago when the Tree of Knowledge was created.
Alabasta has a 4,000 year old history.
The Great Kingdom existed until 800 years ago, when 20 Kingdoms fought and overthrew it. The one hundred years leading up to that was known as the Void Century, as no records of the events are kept with the exception of the Poneglyphs. After the Void Century, the World Government was formed by these 20 Kings. 19 of their families, including the Donquixote Family, moved to Mariejois, while only the Nefertari Family stayed in their original kingdom, Alabasta. The World Government banned research on Poneglyphs and covered everything that happened in the Void Century.
500 years ago, Oars appeared and caused chaos in the world; he would later be killed by frostbite.
400 years ago, a man name Montblanc Noland visited Green Bit, Vira and later Jaya. He went home to Lvneel to report his findings to the people. Unknown to him while he was away, half of Jaya was knocked up to the sky. When he returned with the king of Lvneel and his royal guards, he finds everyone and Shandora gone. The enraged king believed Noland to be a liar without hearing his side of the story, and Noland was executed and branded a liar. This would haunt his family up to the present.
Sometime before 28 years ago, Gol D. Roger began his piracy career. 28 years ago, he began his final journey that lasted 3 years. Afterwards, he disbanded his crew and turned himself in. 24 years ago, he was executed in Loguetown and began the Great Age of Piracy by offering up his treasure, the One Piece.
10 years ago, the fishman Arlong and his crew arrived from the Grand Line and began their conquest of the East Blue. Monkey D. Dragon himself later began to stir up a revolution that grew worse up to the present time. 8 years ago, a Reverie of Kings was held to discuss Dragon.
Monkey D. Luffy set out to begin living a life of piracy. His crew became notorious across the world as they took down two Shichibukai and the secret government organization CP9, as well as destroying the judicial island Enies Lobby. However, they appeared to be exterminated by Bartholomew Kuma on Sabaody Archipelago, but were really split up and sent to different islands.
During this time, the pirate Marshall D. Teach, better known as Blackbeard, captured Portgas D. Ace in order to become a Shichibukai. The World Government decided to execute Ace in order to incite a war against Whitebeard, and this was talked about the world over. Before the execution, however, the World Government suffered a major blow when Luffy broke into Impel Down to save Ace and led 241 prisoners in a mass breakout. Blackbeard would then go and break out several more of the most dangerous prisoners.
This did not impede the planned execution of Ace, however, and the world became further shocked when they learned that Ace was the son of Gol D. Roger and Luffy was the son of Monkey D. Dragon. The Whitebeard Pirates arrived at Marineford and took on the Marines, but Ace and Whitebeard were eventually killed. However, Whitebeard announced to the entire world that the One Piece was real, and things only got worse for the World Government as Blackbeard arrived and took Whitebeard's power, announcing that this was now his age. Shanks then arrived and ended the war, as Luffy managed to escape with the help of the Heart Pirates.
Over the next two years, great changes began taking place. Whitebeard's revelation began a new age of piracy, and Blackbeard usurped his position as a Yonko. Sakazuki became the new Fleet Admiral of the Marines, and the Marines relocated their base to the New World. The Straw Hat Pirates returned after training for two years, and they entered the New World.
In the New World, the Straw Hat Pirates formed an alliance with the Heart Pirates to take down the Yonko Kaido, and their notoriety only grew when they took down Doflamingo of the Shichibukai. Three Supernova crews, the Kid Pirates, On Air Pirates, and Hawkins Pirates also made headlines when they formed an alliance to take down Shanks.
There is almost no cultural diversity out in the North, West, South and East Blues. However in the Grand Line, there are islands which have their own personalities and climates, such that people on these islands will dress to match it. Some islands in the Grand Line have thriving and different cultures, such as Water Seven, Dressrosa, Alabasta, Sabaody, Longring Longland, Jaya, Skypiea, and Wano.
The world of One Piece appears to have English as its primary spoken and written language, though other languages such as French, Spanish, and Japanese have been used for certain technique and position names. There also exists an ancient language written on the Poneglyphs that only the scholars of Ohara could translate.
There is no known central religious organization in One Piece. However, there are subtle references to heaven, demons, crosses, hell, and God throughout the series. Occasionally, churches, cathedrals, and people dressing up in a religious fashion can be found on various islands. Despite the lack of any explicit mention of Christianity, the World Nobles' names always begin with "Saint".
Many people have their own personal beliefs and philosophy about what is right and what is wrong, as well as their own gods to worship. There are regions with pagan religions such as ancient Jaya, where people worship different gods. In Skypiea, the people worship Vearth. In Elbaf, they have different gods. In Thriller Bark, when the Straw Hat Pirates found a floating barrel, Usopp believed it was an offering to a sea god that they must pray to before opening it, though it turned out to be a decoy to alert Thriller Bark of intruders.
- Further information: World Government
With the fall of the Great Kingdom 800 years ago, 20 Kingdoms united to form the World Government. Most nations across the world are member nations of the World Government, although some nations are completely independent such as Wano. Mostly, it is up to each island to govern their daily affairs, although the Marines are stationed across the world to deal justice to criminals. Usually, the World Government only gets involved when a situation could affect a large part of the world.
- Further information: Island Climatic Types
While the climate of the four Blues seems relatively normal, the Grand Line is different. While the weather in the Blues is seen to be tame and normal, the weather in the Grand Line is unpredictable and the New World is even more erratic. It would be cold in some areas and hot in others. Some islands are even stuck in one climate. There is an island in the Calm Belt that has 48 seasons and changes seasons every week.
The Blue SeaEdit
The Blue Sea, which is where the bulk of the storyline takes place, consists of one large continent, one long chain of islands, and four seas that make up two larger oceans. The continent is called the Red Line, the big chain of islands is called the Grand Line and the four seas are called North Blue, South Blue, East Blue and West Blue. There is also a sea known as All Blue, where all the seas flow into, but the location of this sea is not yet known.
The Four BluesEdit
As explained above, North Blue, South Blue, East Blue and West Blue make up the four seas of the world. Within each Blue, sea travel works as it does in the real world. You can sail to any destination you want with a regular compass. However getting from one Blue to another is much more difficult. The reason is because not only the Red Line separates the two oceans, but also because the seas within one ocean are separated by a large sea route called the Grand Line as well as two Calm Belts.
- Main article: Grand Line
Said to be a giant sea current which circumvents the world, it is the one sea where normal compasses fail. It is the destination of every pirate and the path that leads to unimaginable adventures. Most of the story is based in the Grand Line. The reason this sea is sought by every pirate, at least once in his life, is that the greatest treasure, "One Piece" left behind by the legendary pirate, Gol D. Roger, is said to be on the final island of Grand Line ("Raftel"). The Grand Line is divided into two halves by the red line. The first half, known as "Paradise" to the residents of the second half of the Grand Line, is where most of the action has taken place, and where Luffy has found half his crewmates so far. The next half, which is said to be much more difficult and dangerous than the first half, is the "New World". The Yonko unofficially rule the New World.
- Main article: Calm Belt
The Calm Belt is a sea area that surrounds each side of the Grand Line. No winds or sea currents can be found there, hence the name "Calm Belt". As a result, sailing through it is extremely difficult, especially because it is the nesting ground for the Sea Kings. However, Rayleigh swam from the Grand Line to Amazon Lily in the Calm Belt by himself after his ship was sunk in a storm.
- Main article: Red Line
The Red Line is the one and only continent in the One Piece world. It traverses the entire world from north to south. The Red Line separates the two oceans into four smaller seas. One of the oceans forms the two seas, East Blue and South Blue, and the other one forms the North Blue and the West Blue. The Red Line is used by those traversing the Grand Line to separate the first half of the Grand Line and the "New World", as well as the initial starting place of one's journey through the Grand Line; it also exists as the only way to enter the Grand Line besides traveling over the Calm Belt, a highly dangerous prospect. The Holy Land of Mariejois is located on the Red Line, at the part where the Grand Line meets the "New World".
The Sky Ocean is a place that is unknown to most people in the Blue Sea. The reason for that is that the Sky Ocean is entirely made of clouds, which from the Blue Sea does not look like an ocean. The Sky Ocean clouds, however, are no normal clouds. There are two kinds of clouds, Sea Clouds and Island Clouds. Sea Clouds are just like water, which means that it can be sailed on if the ship is not heavy enough to sink through it, whereas Island Clouds are dense enough to carry all kinds of things.
There are different ways to get to the Sky Ocean from the Blue Sea. The only way that has been shown so far is the unorthodox and dangerous way in which the sailors have to take a Knock Up Stream, though it has been said that there is a second, slightly less dangerous way, called High West. In the Sky Ocean there are two known seas, the White Sea and the White White Sea.