Most races in the world originated through natural reproduction.
Humans are the most common race in the world. They rule over more of the world than any other race, with the World Government being founded and operated by humans. Humans are extremely diverse in their size and appearance. Most are one to two meters tall, but there are many who are taller, with some reaching as high as seven meters, while Charlotte Linlin appears to be the same size as a giant. Humans do not typically possess a special physical trait like other races do; indeed, many races' attributes are noted by how they surpass those of humans. However, humans are the most active of any race in scientific research and development, creating weapons and other tools that increase their strength.
Fishmen are humanoid creatures that possess features of aquatic creatures. Each fishman has the traits of a unique type of fish, gaining the abilities that correspond to that fish such as squirting ink, possessing more than two arms or legs, growing unlimited sets of teeth, camouflage, and much more. All fishmen possess both lungs and gills, allowing them to move both on land and in the sea; while fishmen are said to be ten times stronger than humans from birth, this strength is amplified underwater.
Giants heavily resemble humans, with the main difference being their massive size; they are the largest known race in the world, with even large humans barely going up to the level of most giants' knees. The minimum size for a giant is 12 meters, with giants like Oars being around four times taller than average. As a result of their monstrous size, giants possess a tremendous amount of strength, with few people of any other race being able to withstand it. This strength makes them highly coveted as soldiers, and attempts have been made to turn humans into giants, all of which have been unsuccessful so far. Giants originate from lands all across the world, although the most famous giant homeland is the country of Elbaf in the New World.
Merfolk are people with the upper bodies of humans and the tails of fish. Males are called mermen while females are mermaids. Along with fishmen, they are capable of living both on land and in the sea. While their land movement can be limited due to possessing tails instead of legs, they are the fastest swimmers of any aquatic race or species. They also have the ability to communicate with fish. While mermen keep their tails intact for their whole lives, mermaid's tails split into legs when they turn 30, giving them the ability to move around better on land.
There are three races of people who originated on the Moon but later came to the world after the Moon's resources dried up. They heavily resemble humans, with their sole unique feature being a pair of wings on their back which serve no purpose. The size and shape of their wings distinguish them from each other: Skypieans possess small wings that are pointed upward, Shandians (formerly known as Shandorians) possess larger wings that also point upward, and Birkans possess wings that point downward. After leaving the Moon, the Skypieans and Birkans settled on the Sky Islands, while the Shandorians went all the way down to the Blue Sea and settled on Jaya. However, they were later sent up to the Sky Islands by the Knock Up Stream. Eight years ago, Birka was destroyed by the Birkan Enel, so how much of the race currently still lives is unknown.
Minks are humanoids that possess features of mammalian animals. Like fishmen, each mink is connected to a specific animal and often features traits of the animal, such as rabbit minks jumping high and canine minks liking to chew on bones. Male minks almost fully resemble animals that talk and walk on two legs, while females more resemble furry humans with some animal traits. Minks are natural-born warriors and have the ability to discharge electric shocks known as Electro. Most of them live on Zou and have no contact with the rest of the world, causing them to be shrouded in mystery, but some of them have left Zou and reside in other places.
Longarms heavily resemble humans, but possess two joints in their arms that make them significantly longer. The Longarm Tribe once assaulted the country Harahetternia on Namakura Island, and has been in conflict with the Longleg Tribe for over a millennium.
Longlegs, like longarms, heavily resemble humans but possess extremely tall legs that make up most of their height. They possess great strength in their legs, although it was noted that their legs may be their greatest weakness as well. Most but not all longlegs adorn their legs with tattoos and tend to put them on full display. They have been in conflict with the longarms for over a millennium.
The Three-Eye Tribe is a tribe of people that are almost identical to humans, but possess a third eye on their forehead. They can use their third eye to gain the ability to hear the Voice of All Things and read Poneglyphs, but they are extremely rare.
Dwarves are extremely small humanoids, being small enough to fit in the palm of an average-sized human's hand. Their most notable features are their large and fluffy tails. Dwarves possess tremendous strength for their size, being capable of damaging buildings with attacks, and they are also blindingly fast. They are all extremely gullible. A notable colony of dwarves known as the Tontatta Tribe lives on Green Bit near Dressrosa.
The Snakeneck Tribe is a tribe of people that possess extremely long necks. Snakenecks seem so far to be very slim and possess collars or tattoos on their necks.
A kinokobito is a humanoid with a mushroom-shaped body and four legs. Nothing is known of the race other than its appearance.
Yeti are large humanoids that are covered in fur. They predominantly operate in cold regions.
Hybrid races are races born between the union of two separate races. Humans have been shown to intermarry other races, with their offsprings possessing traits from their other half. Offsprings born from two non-human tribes usually inherit the characteristic features of both parents.
Wotan are a hybrid race born between the union of a fishman and a giant. Wotans are smaller than giants but are still massive, and still retain the special unique attributes of their fishmen fish half.
A hybrid race born between the union of a longleg and a longarm, resulting in the person possessing the attributes of both. As they are relatively unique, the only known example has been captured and imprisoned by the Big Mom Pirates.
These races are composed of sentient beings that were created by people through science or Devil Fruit powers rather than by natural procreation.
Automata are robots that were built by the original Moon races and left behind when the Moon people left for the world. Despite being robots, they appear like they are made of flesh and blood. There were also some Automata created on Karakuri Island, who later went to the moon.
Cyborgs are hybrids between man and machine, with the man having various body parts replaced by mechanical parts. The first known example is Franky. Later, the Marines use a mass-produced variety called the Pacifista, which uses the Shichibukai, Bartholomew Kuma, as the prototype.
Clones are humans who are not born, but made artificially. They were successfully created due to the research of Doctor Vegapunk and Vinsmoke Judge. Publicly, cloning is illegal, but the army of Germa 66 of the Germa Kingdom is predominantly made up of clones.
Newkama, similar to Okama or better known as 'queers', are those who 'awaken' to the opposite gender they are born into. However, unlike the okama, the Newkama's have had their gender physically altered via Emporio Ivankov's Horu Horu no Mi ability, and can switch back-and-forth between male and female with his assistance.
Zombies are corpses that are animated with shadows taken by Gekko Moriah's Devil Fruit the Kage Kage no Mi. The zombies' bodies can be anything that was once living, including plants and animals, but they have the sentience of humanoid races due to possessing human shadows, and will have the same personality as the person whose shadow was given to them. Zombies will die again if the person whose shadow they possess dies, if they are purified by ingesting salt, or if Moriah removes their shadow. Many zombies lived on Thriller Bark while Moriah was headquartered there, but Moriah took all their shadows into himself while he was battling the Straw Hat Pirates, killing all of them. Moriah would later leave Thriller Bark and briefly make a few zombies out of Marines on Marineford, but it is unknown if he has made any more since then.
Centaurs, Satyrs, and HarpyEdit
Centaurs, Satyrs, and Harpies are humans who had the lower bodies of animals attached to them by Trafalgar Law's Ope Ope no Mi. The centaurs and satyrs were originally prisoners on Punk Hazard who were left to die after a gas weapon explosion and fallout four years ago. They survived but were unable to use their legs. They were given animal legs by Law when he came to the island over three years later. The former pirate captain Brownbeard was also given new legs after he came to the island after his encounter with Basil Hawkins. Some of these centaurs became the Centaur Patrol Unit and Brownbeard became their boss.
Whilst the centaurs come with several different varieties of four-legged lower half (with the exception of Run, who had an eight-legged spider for legs), the satyrs were bipedal with all of them possessing goat rear legs and short goat horns. The sole known harpy, Monet, possessed no known disability, but was still modified, having her arms and legs replaced with the limbs of a bird.
Toys were originally people and animals that were transformed by Sugar's Devil Fruit the Hobi Hobi no Mi. Their bodies were made out of materials such as wood and stuffing, making them unable to feel the warmth of human touch. Anyone who was turned into a toy became forgotten by everyone who knew them, and Donquixote Doflamingo used Sugar's ability to turn all of his enemies into toys and enslave them. However, the toys will return to their original form if Sugar is knocked out, which is what happened after Operation SOP successfully took her out. Sugar regained consciousness and turned a few more people into toys, but was knocked out again and was arrested before she came to, leaving no one under her curse.
Homies are beings created by Big Mom's Devil Fruit the Soru Soru no Mi. They are given life by Big Mom inserting her soul into them, making them similar to zombies, but there are differences between them. Homies can be made out of any inanimate object in addition to trees and animals, but cannot be made from corpses, and no humans alive or dead can be made into them. The soul fragments given to most of the homies are tributes from the citizens of Totto Land, who give up six months of their lifespan, and Big Mom's incarnations scatter these throughout the land.
So far, there seems to be no limits in terms of people from different races procreating. Most people of mixed race seen so far have at least one human parent, and these people typically look similar to their non-human parent. This is evidenced by Charlotte Linlin's children, some of whom are half mermaid, half snakeneck, half longarm, half longleg, and half three-eye and possess these races' unique features, although half three-eye Charlotte Pudding remarked that her mixed heritage might prevent her from awakening the ability to hear the Voice of All Things. However, human traits still do appear in some people of mixed blood, such as Dellinger, a half-fishman who has human skin.
Hybrids between two non-human races have been shown to be much more varied, and multiple non-human mixed races have been given names. Hybrids between giants and fishmen are known as wotans and possess both great size and traits of a certain fish, while hybrids between longarms and longlegs are known as longlimb humans.
Procreation between a fishman and one of the merfolk is different than other interracial procreation. Rather than gaining traits of both species, children will either be born as fishmen or merfolk. Their genes from not just their parents, but also their ancestors, would play a role in determining which species and type of fish they would be born as.
Lack of knowledge and understanding of different races has resulted in centuries of racism between the races of the world.
The most common form of racism seen has been racism between humans and the fishmen and merfolk. Some humans view fishmen and merfolk to be inferior and closer to animals than people, and this prejudice exists even in the World Government. An alliance between the World Government and Fishman Island was not established until two hundred years ago, and relations remain uneasy, with humans and fishmen forbidden by law from donating blood to each other and the races generally not coexisting either on land or underwater. Fishmen and merfolk are commonly captured and sold into slavery. On the other side, the fishmen's resentment of their treatment by humans has resulted in a breeding ground of hatred. Some fishmen view themselves as superior to humans due to their physical superiorities, and groups such as the Arlong Pirates have attacked and subjugated humans. Merfolk do not seem to share this resentment against humans.
Humans have not always gotten along well with giants, particularly those from Elbaf. It was stated that the execution of the Giant Warrior Pirates may have resulted in a war between the World Government and the giants had it been carried out, and giants were not integrated into the Marines until this past century. Due to the Mink Tribe's mysterious nature, myths and rumors abound about their unfriendliness and savage ferocity, creating prejudices about the minks that are inaccurate. Humans such as the Donquixote Family have used dwarves for manual labor, taking advantage of their gullibility to effectively enslave them.
Although they once coexisted on the moon, the Skypieans and Shandians began warring when their tribes reunited over 400 years after they journeyed to the world; the soil island the Shandians had lived on had been shot up into the sky, and the Skypieans took over the land because they considered soil holy, causing warfare to break out over control of the Shandians' land, which gained the name Upper Yard. However, the Birkan Enel came four years ago and took over Upper Yard, and the Skypieans and Shandians ended up working together to dethrone him, putting an end to their long feud. The Longarm and Longleg Tribes have been warring with each other for over a millennium, though not all longarms and longlegs engage in this; the cause of this fight is unknown.
Efforts have been made across the world for greater amounts of race integration. Fishman Island's queen Otohime established a petition for fishmen coexistence with humans on land. She managed to gain the backing of the World Nobles, but was assassinated by fishman extremist Hody Jones, who pinned the murder on a human to set back the coexistence efforts. However, after Hody's crew the New Fishman Pirates failed to take over Fishman Island, the desire for coexistence was renewed and Otohime's petition gained enough signatures to be presented at the Reverie. Underworld dealer Carmel pioneered an effort to improve human and giant relations with the backing of the government; although this effort was only intended to recruit giants into the Marines, they were none the wiser as Carmel set up the Sheep's House on Elbaf, which took in orphaned and abandoned children of all races in order to recruit them into the Marines or Cipher Pol. One of Carmel's wards, Charlotte Linlin, adopted this dream from her without knowing it was an act, and after Carmel's death, Linlin sought to rule over a country where every race could live in harmony. She eventually achieved this dream, establishing Totto Land. However, not every race lives on Totto Land, as Linlin is reviled among the giant race due to her actions while living in the Sheep's House. Despite Linlin's dream, she hypocritically insulted her 35th daughter for her third eye as unsightly, ordering her to grow out her hair to cover it, as well as collecting unusual species in her library for personal amusement.
World Nobles are humans who have unprecedented privileges granted by the World Government. Lawful freedom and virtually inexhaustible wealth made them look down on all species, even fellow human, who are not in the same social caste as them. They believe themselves to be gods, and that humans are beneath them and should be looked down with contempt. When one of their own, Donquixote Homing, expressed his differing views on humanity and requesting his family's World Noble statuses to be annulled, the others immediately severed ties with the entire Donquixote Family, regarded them as "mere humans" and traitors, and refused to take them back or assist them. They have even more contemptuous views of superiority and inferiority for fishmen and merfolks, derogatorily considering them to be mere fishes, as Charloss only wanted to buy Keimi for the sake of his personal entertainment at the expense of her safety, and Mjosgard snarlingly looked down on his escaped fishmen slaves despite being outnumbered and isolated.